Breed Type: Toy
Weight: 3-7 pounds (1-3 kg)
Height: 7-12 inches (18-30 cm)
Coat type: Long and straight hair and a thick undercoat
The Pomeranian is also often known as a Pom. It is a Spitz type breed of dog that has been named after the Pomerania region in Central Europe, which is today a part of modern eastern Germany and northern Poland. Because of its small size, it comes under a toy dog breed class. According to the Federation Cynologique International, the Pomeranian is part of the German Spitz breed. They are also known as the Zwergspitz, Dwarf` Spitz, or Toy German Spitz in many countries.
It has been believed that the oldest ancestor of the Pomeranian belongs to Egypt. Their skeletons have been found in ancient Egyptian tombs. The pictures of Pomeranian can also be seen in stone and bronze sculptures or on pitchers found in Egyptian tombs. Pomeranians originally belongs to Pomerania, the region which was the north border of the Baltic Sea. The name Pomorze or Pommern comes from Slavic, which means along the sea. Breeders in Pomerania worked on improving the coat and finally bred the dogs which were suitable for city living. When poms reached England, they weigh 20 pounds or more. English breeders, through trials and different theories, tried to improve the breed. With their successful experiments, they are credited for reducing the dog's size and developing the breed in many colors. Thus, the Pomeranian which is found today is small due to selective breeding. In 1892, the Pomeranian ultimately came to the U.S.A.
Pomeranians are available in all colors and patterns, such as, white, black, gray, orange, brown, wolf, or white with colored markings. These are small dogs with a soft and fluffy fur. The tails of Pomeranians are straight or slightly curved at the time of their birth, and between 1 to 3 months it curve over their back. The shape of their eyes is like almond and they are very bright and dark with an intelligent expression. They have very sharp teeth. Pomeranians have a wedge-shaped head and pointed erect ears. There is an abundant ruff around the neck and chest area. The profuse stand-off double coat usually comes in solid colors. Any solid color coat is allowed, but the most common colors are red, orange, blue, brown or black and white or cream.
Pomeranians are tiny to appear but are very bold, intrusive and lively. Pom is considered as a brave and excellent watchdog. It is smart, intelligent, and suspicious of other animals and strangers. This breed is very loyal and is always eager to learn. They are easy to train, but need consistent training and can be properly socialized to live well with other pets and dogs in the family. They do not like children much. This breed is fond of barking, so must be trained early to bark less. Pomeranians are naturally very friendly, playful and active. These dogs are very protective of their owners and love to spend time with their family. Because of their long double-coat, they tend to seek out cooler environments. Therefore, they love to lay down on a cold floor or hard surface.
One of the most common problems found in Pomeranians is Legg-Calvé-Perthes syndrome. Hip dysplasia can occur, but are not commonly found in this small breed. Patent ductus arteriosus, which is a congenital heart defect, and collapsing trachea are serious problems which can be seen in Poms. Dry eye, or tear duct disorders, in young females can lead to blindness. Skin diseases, such as allergies and follicular dysplasia, are also very common in this breed. Other problems which include hypothyroidism, epilepsy, and hypoglycemia can also be seen. Poms may also suffer from Progressive Retinal Atrophy PRA, which is a degenerative disease of the eye and cataracts.
It is essential to comb the coat of your Pomeranian in every three weeks and then brush it lightly. Don't indulge in over grooming else it may ruin the undercoat of your dog. To keep your little friend fit and happy, you need to take it on short walks at least thrice daily. They love playing in the yard with their owners which provide them enough exercise along with the company of their owner.